Simple compartmental model including soluble gas transport in the alveoli, transfer between the bronchial circulation and the conducting airways, and metabolism.
This is a simple model of the pulmonary system where the lung is subdivided into compartments representing air spaces: dead space, peripheral bronchial tract, and the alveolar space; blood volumes: upper airway mucus, pulmonary capillary, systemic blood flow; and tissue space: whole body excluding the lungs. The upper airway mucus layer resides along the peripheral bronchial tract and has a continuous blood flow QM which effectively communicates with the gas in the bronchial tract.
The alveolar compartment changes volume with ventilation. Prior to steady state, the lung undergoes tidal breathing, represented by a sinusoid
After a pre-determined number of breaths, a secondary maneuver is performed: prolonged exhale or rebreathing. For a prolonged exhalation maneuver, the lungs are brought quickly to total lung capacity (TLC), then drained at a constant rate to the residual volume (RV).
In a rebreathing maneuver, an external bag is attached and the subjects breaths a number of breaths, generally 8, directly into and out of a bag.
Compartmental Definitions The following compartments use conservation of mass equations to follow the concentration of the soluble gas tracer.
Peripheral Bronchial Compartment
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Kumagai S, and Matsunaga I. A lung model describing uptake of organic solvents and roles of mucosal blood flow and metabolism in the bronchioles. Inhal Toxicol 12: 491-510, 2000.
Please cite https://www.imagwiki.nibib.nih.gov/physiome in any publication for which this software is used and send one reprint to the address given below:
The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.
Model development and archiving support at https://www.imagwiki.nibib.nih.gov/physiome provided by the following grants: NIH U01HL122199 Analyzing the Cardiac Power Grid, 09/15/2015 - 05/31/2020, NIH/NIBIB BE08407 Software Integration, JSim and SBW 6/1/09-5/31/13; NIH/NHLBI T15 HL88516-01 Modeling for Heart, Lung and Blood: From Cell to Organ, 4/1/07-3/31/11; NSF BES-0506477 Adaptive Multi-Scale Model Simulation, 8/15/05-7/31/08; NIH/NHLBI R01 HL073598 Core 3: 3D Imaging and Computer Modeling of the Respiratory Tract, 9/1/04-8/31/09; as well as prior support from NIH/NCRR P41 RR01243 Simulation Resource in Circulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, 12/1/1980-11/30/01 and NIH/NIBIB R01 EB001973 JSim: A Simulation Analysis Platform, 3/1/02-2/28/07.