Model number

This model is based on Athanasiades et al. energy analysis of a nonlinear model of the normal human lung. J Biol Sys. 8(2):115-39, 2000.


This model is based on Athanasiades et al. Energy analysis of a nonlinear model of the normal human lung. J BIOL SYS. 8(2):115-39, 2000. This model is a lumped parameter description of lung mechanics. the model considers airway resistance in three compartments: small, collapsible, and upper airways. Each of these compartments has a resistance dependent on either compartmental volume or flow. There are also several compliant compartments: the collapsible airways, lung parenchyma, and chest wall. The model is driven by a muscle pressure. The manuscript has several minor errors in the equations from Table 2. This code is annotated to mark the differences where appropriate. An additional correction, Page 120, line 6, compliance has been defined incorrectly as Ccw =dPwc/dVcw. It should be Ccw=dVcw/dPcw. Two equations are given for the dynamic elastic recoil for the lung tissue (equations 3 and 4 for Pl,dyn). The plus and minus signs in equation 3 are reversed.

Athanasiades pic1


Athanasiade pic1

The equations for this model may be viewed by running the JSim model applet and clicking on the Source tab at the bottom left of JSim's Run Time graphical user interface. The equations are written in JSim's Mathematical Modeling Language (MML). See the Introduction to MML and the MML Reference Manual. Additional documentation for MML can be found by using the search option at the Physiome home page.

Download JSim model project file

Help running a JSim model.

A. Athanasiades, F. Ghorbel, JW Clark Jr., S.C. Niranjan, J. Olansen, 
J.B. Zwischenberger, and A. Bidani : "Energy analysis of a nonlinear
model of the normal human lung", J BIOL SYS. 8(2):115-39, 2000.
Key terms
Virtual Soldier
Lumped parameter
Respiratory mechanics
Chest Wall

Please cite in any publication for which this software is used and send one reprint to the address given below:
The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.

Model development and archiving support at provided by the following grants: NIH U01HL122199 Analyzing the Cardiac Power Grid, 09/15/2015 - 05/31/2020, NIH/NIBIB BE08407 Software Integration, JSim and SBW 6/1/09-5/31/13; NIH/NHLBI T15 HL88516-01 Modeling for Heart, Lung and Blood: From Cell to Organ, 4/1/07-3/31/11; NSF BES-0506477 Adaptive Multi-Scale Model Simulation, 8/15/05-7/31/08; NIH/NHLBI R01 HL073598 Core 3: 3D Imaging and Computer Modeling of the Respiratory Tract, 9/1/04-8/31/09; as well as prior support from NIH/NCRR P41 RR01243 Simulation Resource in Circulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, 12/1/1980-11/30/01 and NIH/NIBIB R01 EB001973 JSim: A Simulation Analysis Platform, 3/1/02-2/28/07.