Model number

The model simulates baroreceptor function by changing heart rate, ventricular contractility, and arterial resistance in response to an input aortic pressure signal.


  The model simulates baroreceptor function by changing heart rate, ventricular 
  contractility, and arterial resistance in response to an input aortic pressure 
  signal. No circulatory model is present, and the input aortic pressure curve is 
  taken from the literature (Stergiopulos 1999). An aortic pressure curve follower 
  variable (PaopFOL) is used to set the aortic pressure time-derivative.

  The model was first implemented by Lu et al. (2001) and was based on work by 
  Wesseling and Settles (1992). An aortic pressure waveform from Stergiopulos et al. 
  (1999) is used as input to the baroreceptor pathway.  There is no circulatory 
  model present, and the aortic waveform remains unchanged by the resulting heart 
  rate, ventricular contractility and arterial resistance values.






























The equations for this model may be viewed by running the JSim model applet and clicking on the Source tab at the bottom left of JSim's Run Time graphical user interface. The equations are written in JSim's Mathematical Modeling Language (MML). See the Introduction to MML and the MML Reference Manual. Additional documentation for MML can be found by using the search option at the Physiome home page.

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Help running a JSim model.

  Lu K, Clark JW, Ghorbel FH, Ware DL, Bidani A.,
  A human cardiopulmonary system model applied to the analysis
  of the Valsalva maneuver.  Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol.
  281: H2661-H2679, 2001. 

  Stergiopulos N, Westerhof BE, Westerhof N., Total arterial
  inertance as the fourth element of the windkessel model.
  Am J Physiol 276: H81-H88, 1999.

  Wesseling KH and Settels JJ. Circulatory model of baro- and cardio-pulmonary reflexes. 
  In: Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability, edited by Di Rienzo M. 
  IOS Press, 1992, p. 56-67. 

  The governing equations for Nbr is adopted from Spickler JW, Kezdi P, and Geller E. 
  Transfer characteristics of the carotid sinus pressure control system. In: Baroreceptors and
  Hypertension, edited by Kezdi P. Pergamon, Dayton, OH, 1665, pp. 31-40.	
Key terms
heart rate control
cardiovascular system
sympathetic control
parasympathetic control
arterial resistance
afferent pathway
efferent pathway
Nervous system
autonomic system

Please cite in any publication for which this software is used and send one reprint to the address given below:
The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.

Model development and archiving support at provided by the following grants: NIH U01HL122199 Analyzing the Cardiac Power Grid, 09/15/2015 - 05/31/2020, NIH/NIBIB BE08407 Software Integration, JSim and SBW 6/1/09-5/31/13; NIH/NHLBI T15 HL88516-01 Modeling for Heart, Lung and Blood: From Cell to Organ, 4/1/07-3/31/11; NSF BES-0506477 Adaptive Multi-Scale Model Simulation, 8/15/05-7/31/08; NIH/NHLBI R01 HL073598 Core 3: 3D Imaging and Computer Modeling of the Respiratory Tract, 9/1/04-8/31/09; as well as prior support from NIH/NCRR P41 RR01243 Simulation Resource in Circulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, 12/1/1980-11/30/01 and NIH/NIBIB R01 EB001973 JSim: A Simulation Analysis Platform, 3/1/02-2/28/07.