Model number


A closed loop cardiopulmonary model composed of a four-chamber varying-elastance heart, a pericardium, a systemic circulation, a pulmonary circulation, a coronary circulation, airways mechanics, baroreceptors, gas exchange, and blood gas handling.


 The model simulates physiological features such as the arterial blood pressure waveform,
 end-diastolic left ventricular volume, coronary capillary flow, pleural pressure, and 
 arterial oxygen concentration. 	

 This model is a reduced form of the Highly-integrated_human_with_interventions model. 
 The code for simulation of interventions and injuries (aka Physiological Changes) and 
 peripheral chemoreceptors has been removed from the parent model to create the present 

 The JSim project file allows the user to simulate certain interventions by changing 
 model parameters in the “Inputs” page. For example, the parameter for pulmonary valve 
 resistance (Rpuv) can be increased to simulate pulmonary valve stenosis. 


fig 1


The equations for this model may be viewed by running the JSim model applet and clicking on the Source tab at the bottom left of JSim's Run Time graphical user interface. The equations are written in JSim's Mathematical Modeling Language (MML). See the Introduction to MML and the MML Reference Manual. Additional documentation for MML can be found by using the search option at the Physiome home page.

Download JSim model project file


Help running a JSim model.

 Athanasiades A, Ghorbel F, Clark JW, Niranjan SC, Olansen J,
 Zwischenberger JB, Bidani A.  Energy analysis of a nonlinear
 model of the normal human lung.  Journal of Biological 
 Systems. 8(2): 115-139, 2000.

 Brandenburg, Robert O. Cardiology: fundamentals and practice.
 Yearbook medical publishers, 1987. p. 49.

 Chung DC, Niranjan SC, Clark Jr. JW, Bidani A, Johnston WE,
 Zwischenberger JB, Traber DL. A dynamic model of ventricular
 interaction and pericardial influence.  Am J Phsiol Heart 
 Circ Physiol. 272: H2942-H2962, 1997.

 Duffin J, Mohan RM, Vasiliou P, Stephenson R, Mahamed S. A
 model of the chemoreflex control of breathing in humans: model 
 parameters measurement. Respiration Physiology 120:13-26, 2000.

 Golden JF, Clark JW, Stevens PM. Mathematical Modeling of 
 Pulmonary Airway Dynamics.  IEEE Transactions on Biomedical 
 Engineering. 20(6): 397-404, 1973.
 Heldt T, Shim EB, Kamm RD, Mark RG. Computational modeling of
 cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress.  Journal of 
 Applied Physiology. 92: 1239-1254, 2002.

 Kezdi P, and Geller E. Transfer characteristics of the
 carotid sinus pressure control system. In: Baroreceptors and
 Hypertension, Kezdi, P. (ed.) Pergamon, Dayton, OH, 1967,
 pp. 31-40.

 Liu CH, Niranjan SC, Clark JW, San KY, Zwischenberger JB,
 Bidani A.  Airway mechanics, gas exchange, and blood flow
 in a nonlinear model of the normal human lung.  Journal of 
 Applied Physiology. 84(4): 1447-1469.

 Lu K, Clark JW, Ghorbel FH, Ware DL, Bidani A.
 A human cardiopulmonary system model applied to the analysis
 of the Valsalva maneuver.  Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol.
 281: H2661-H2679, 2001. 

 Rideout VC. Mathematical computer modeling of physiological
 systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991, 261 pp.

 Sun Y, Beshara M, Lucariello RJ, Chiaramida SA.  A 
 comprehensive model for right-left heart interaction under the
 influence of pericardium and baroreflex.  Am J Physiol Heart
 Circ Physiol. 272: H1499-H1515, 1997.

 Woodbury, JW.  Body acid-base and its regulation.  In: 
 Physiology and Biophysics Volume II: Circulation, Respiration,
 and Fluid Balance.  Ruch, TC and Patton, HD (eds.) W.B. 
 Saunders Company. 1974. 558 pp. 

 Zinemanas D, Beyar R, Sideman S.  Relating mechanics, blood
 flow and mass transport in the cardiac muscle.  Int. J. Heat 
 Mass Transfer.  37(suppl. 1) 191-205, 1994.
Key terms
gas exchange
blood gas handling
systemic circulation
pulmonary circulation
coronary circulation
lumped parameter
carbon dioxide
airway mechanics
integrated physiology
cardiopulmonary mechanics

Please cite in any publication for which this software is used and send one reprint to the address given below:
The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.

Model development and archiving support at provided by the following grants: NIH U01HL122199 Analyzing the Cardiac Power Grid, 09/15/2015 - 05/31/2020, NIH/NIBIB BE08407 Software Integration, JSim and SBW 6/1/09-5/31/13; NIH/NHLBI T15 HL88516-01 Modeling for Heart, Lung and Blood: From Cell to Organ, 4/1/07-3/31/11; NSF BES-0506477 Adaptive Multi-Scale Model Simulation, 8/15/05-7/31/08; NIH/NHLBI R01 HL073598 Core 3: 3D Imaging and Computer Modeling of the Respiratory Tract, 9/1/04-8/31/09; as well as prior support from NIH/NCRR P41 RR01243 Simulation Resource in Circulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, 12/1/1980-11/30/01 and NIH/NIBIB R01 EB001973 JSim: A Simulation Analysis Platform, 3/1/02-2/28/07.