A closed loop cardiopulmonary model composed of a four-chamber varying-elastance heart, a pericardium, a systemic circulation, a pulmonary circulation, a coronary circulation, and baroreceptors.
The model simulates physiological features such as the arterial blood pressure waveform, end-diastolic left ventricular volume, and coronary capillary flow. This model is a reduced form of the Highly-integrated_human_with_interventions model. The code for simulation of interventions and injuries (aka Physiological Changes), peripheral chemoreceptors, blood gas handling, gas exchange, and airway mechanics has been removed from the parent model to create the present system. The JSim project file allows the user to simulate certain interventions by changing model parameters in the “Inputs” page. For example, the parameter for pulmonary valve resistance (Rpuv) can be increased to simulate pulmonary valve stenosis. This model is a reduced form of the Highly-integrated_human_with_interventions model, which has been partially validated. The code for simulation of interventions and injuries (aka Physiological Changes), peripheral chemoreceptors, blood gas handling, gas exchange and airway mechanics has been removed from the parent model to create the present system.
The equations for this model may be viewed by running the JSim model applet and clicking on the Source tab at the bottom left of JSim's Run Time graphical user interface. The equations are written in JSim's Mathematical Modeling Language (MML). See the Introduction to MML and the MML Reference Manual. Additional documentation for MML can be found by using the search option at the Physiome home page.
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Brandenburg, Robert O. Cardiology: fundamentals and practice. Yearbook medical publishers, 1987. p. 49. Chung DC, Niranjan SC, Clark Jr. JW, Bidani A, Johnston WE, Zwischenberger JB, Traber DL. A dynamic model of ventricular interaction and pericardial influence. Am J Phsiol Heart Circ Physiol. 272: H2942-H2962, 1997. Golden JF, Clark JW, Stevens PM. Mathematical Modeling of Pulmonary Airway Dynamics. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 20(6): 397-404, 1973. Heldt T, Shim EB, Kamm RD, Mark RG. Computational modeling of cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress. Journal of Applied Physiology. 92: 1239-1254, 2002. Kezdi P, and Geller E. Transfer characteristics of the carotid sinus pressure control system. In: Baroreceptors and Hypertension, Kezdi, P. (ed.) Pergamon, Dayton, OH, 1967, pp. 31-40. Lu K, Clark JW, Ghorbel FH, Ware DL, Bidani A. A human cardiopulmonary system model applied to the analysis of the Valsalva maneuver. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 281: H2661-H2679, 2001. Rideout VC. Mathematical computer modeling of physiological systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991, 261 pp. Sun Y, Beshara M, Lucariello RJ, Chiaramida SA. A comprehensive model for right-left heart interaction under the influence of pericardium and baroreflex. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 272: H1499-H1515, 1997. Zinemanas D, Beyar R, Sideman S. Relating mechanics, blood flow and mass transport in the cardiac muscle. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer. 37(suppl. 1) 191-205, 1994.
Please cite https://www.imagwiki.nibib.nih.gov/physiome in any publication for which this software is used and send one reprint to the address given below:
The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.
Model development and archiving support at https://www.imagwiki.nibib.nih.gov/physiome provided by the following grants: NIH U01HL122199 Analyzing the Cardiac Power Grid, 09/15/2015 - 05/31/2020, NIH/NIBIB BE08407 Software Integration, JSim and SBW 6/1/09-5/31/13; NIH/NHLBI T15 HL88516-01 Modeling for Heart, Lung and Blood: From Cell to Organ, 4/1/07-3/31/11; NSF BES-0506477 Adaptive Multi-Scale Model Simulation, 8/15/05-7/31/08; NIH/NHLBI R01 HL073598 Core 3: 3D Imaging and Computer Modeling of the Respiratory Tract, 9/1/04-8/31/09; as well as prior support from NIH/NCRR P41 RR01243 Simulation Resource in Circulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, 12/1/1980-11/30/01 and NIH/NIBIB R01 EB001973 JSim: A Simulation Analysis Platform, 3/1/02-2/28/07.