Model number

Equations and Data for O2 and CO2 solubility in water, normal saline, human & Ox plasma. This model uses individual fit data to express the O2 and CO2 solubility in various biological solutions. Please refer to the Notes tab for further details on the model and files.


  Calculates the oxygen and carbon dioxide solubility across a physiolgical
  range of temperatures through various media (water, 155 mM normal saline,
  human & Ox plasma. 

  O2 = AO2 *exp(-O2k1 *t) + BO2 *exp(-O2k2 *t).
  CO2= ACO2*exp(-CO2k1*t) + BCO2*exp(-CO2k2*t).


The equations for this model may be viewed by running the JSim model applet and clicking on the Source tab at the bottom left of JSim's Run Time graphical user interface. The equations are written in JSim's Mathematical Modeling Language (MML). See the Introduction to MML and the MML Reference Manual. Additional documentation for MML can be found by using the search option at the Physiome home page.

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 Christmas KM and Bassingthwaighte JB. Equations for O2 and CO2 solubilities 
  in saline and plasma: Combining temperature and density dependences. 
  J Appl Physiol 122: 1313-1320, 2017.

 The data for gas solubility in water, plasma, and saline was found in the 
 following book. Specific locations for each dataset can be found below:

 Katz DD, Altman PL, National Research C, and Federation of American Societies
 for Experimental B. Respiration and circulation, compiled and edited by 
 Philip L. Altman and Dorothy S. Dittmer. Prepared under the auspices of the 
 Committee on Biological Handbooks. Bethesda, Md.: Federation of American
 Societies for Experimental Biology, 1971, p. 16-18.

 Specifically pulled from:
 (Oxygen and carbon dioxide solubility in water)
 Hodgman, C. D., et al., ed. 1952. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Ed. 34.
    Chemical Rubber, Cleveland. P. 1532.

 Benson BB, Krause D, and Peterson MA. J. Sol. Chem. 8(9): 655-690, 1979.

 (Oxygen solubility in 155 normal saline)                    
 Sendroy, J., Jr., et al. 1934. J. Biol. Chem. 105:597.

 (Carbon dioxide solubility for 155 normal saline)
 Van Slyke, D. D., et al. 1928 J. Biol. Chem. 78:765.

 (Oxygen solubility in Human plasma)
 Christoforides, C., and J. Hedley-Whyte. 1969 J. Appl. Physiol. 26(1):56.

 (Carbon dioxide solubility in Ox plasma)
 Barels, H., and R. Wrbitzky. 1960. Fluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen 
    Tiere 271:162.
Key terms
Cardiac grid

Please cite in any publication for which this software is used and send one reprint to the address given below:
The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.

Model development and archiving support at provided by the following grants: NIH U01HL122199 Analyzing the Cardiac Power Grid, 09/15/2015 - 05/31/2020, NIH/NIBIB BE08407 Software Integration, JSim and SBW 6/1/09-5/31/13; NIH/NHLBI T15 HL88516-01 Modeling for Heart, Lung and Blood: From Cell to Organ, 4/1/07-3/31/11; NSF BES-0506477 Adaptive Multi-Scale Model Simulation, 8/15/05-7/31/08; NIH/NHLBI R01 HL073598 Core 3: 3D Imaging and Computer Modeling of the Respiratory Tract, 9/1/04-8/31/09; as well as prior support from NIH/NCRR P41 RR01243 Simulation Resource in Circulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, 12/1/1980-11/30/01 and NIH/NIBIB R01 EB001973 JSim: A Simulation Analysis Platform, 3/1/02-2/28/07.