Model number


Highly-integrated human, a closed loop cardiopulmonary model composed of a four-chamber varying-elastance heart, a pericardium, a systemic circ, a pulmonary circ, airways mechanics, baroreceptors, gas exch, blood gas handling, coronary circ, and peripheral chemoreceptors.


 The model simulates physiological features such as the arterial blood pressure waveform, 
 end-diastolic left ventricular volume, coronary capillary flow, pleural pressure, and 
 arterial oxygen concentration.

 This model is a reduced form of the Highly-integrated_human_with_interventions model. 
 Only the sections of code for simulating interventions and injuries (aka Physiological Changes) 
 have been removed from this parent model.

 The JSim project file allows the user to simulate certain interventions by changing model 
 parameters in the “Inputs” page. For example, the parameter for pulmonary valve resistance (Rpuv) 
 can be increased to simulate pulmonary valve stenosis. 	

fig 1


The equations for this model may be viewed by running the JSim model applet and clicking on the Source tab at the bottom left of JSim's Run Time graphical user interface. The equations are written in JSim's Mathematical Modeling Language (MML). See the Introduction to MML and the MML Reference Manual. Additional documentation for MML can be found by using the search option at the Physiome home page.

Download JSim model project file


Help running a JSim model.

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 Lu K, Clark JW, Ghorbel FH, Ware DL, Bidani A.
 A human cardiopulmonary system model applied to the analysis
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 Lu K, Clark JW, Ghorbel FH, Ware DL, Zwischenberger JB, 
 Bidani A.  Whole-body gas exchange in human predicted by a 
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 International Journal. 3(1):1-19, 2002.

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 systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991, 261 pp.

 Sun Y, Beshara M, Lucariello RJ, Chiaramida SA.  A 
 comprehensive model for right-left heart interaction under the
 influence of pericardium and baroreflex.  Am J Physiol Heart
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 Woodbury, JW.  Body acid-base and its regulation.  In: 
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Key terms
gas exchange
blood gas handling
systemic circulation
pulmonary circulation
coronary circulation
lumped parameter
carbon dioxide
airway mechanics
integrated physiology
Virtual Soldier
Highly-integrated human

Please cite in any publication for which this software is used and send one reprint to the address given below:
The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.

Model development and archiving support at provided by the following grants: NIH U01HL122199 Analyzing the Cardiac Power Grid, 09/15/2015 - 05/31/2020, NIH/NIBIB BE08407 Software Integration, JSim and SBW 6/1/09-5/31/13; NIH/NHLBI T15 HL88516-01 Modeling for Heart, Lung and Blood: From Cell to Organ, 4/1/07-3/31/11; NSF BES-0506477 Adaptive Multi-Scale Model Simulation, 8/15/05-7/31/08; NIH/NHLBI R01 HL073598 Core 3: 3D Imaging and Computer Modeling of the Respiratory Tract, 9/1/04-8/31/09; as well as prior support from NIH/NCRR P41 RR01243 Simulation Resource in Circulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, 12/1/1980-11/30/01 and NIH/NIBIB R01 EB001973 JSim: A Simulation Analysis Platform, 3/1/02-2/28/07.