# Tidal_Human

Model number
0209

A single chamber model of the lung pressure and volume with airway resistance and lung compliance.

## Description

```  Human lung pressure volume curves as influenced by serial
resistances of airways and chest wall and by compliance of chest
wall and lung.Volumes are driven by negative intrapleural pressure.
```

## Equations

The model is represented by only two equations. The first equation:

```V:t = - ( (1/Ccw + 1/Cl) * V + P) / (Rs + Rc + Ru);
```

equates the change in volume with respect to time with flow. The flow term on the right hand side is expressed by (the fluid equivalent of) Ohm's law as F = Plung/R and Plung is just the pressure attributed to vessel compliance, (1/Ccw + 1/Cl) * V, added to the negative pleural driving pressure P. The second equation:

```P = PInit + PDelta * sin(2*PI*freq*t+PI/2) - PDelta;
```

represents the pleural pressure which is driving the lung ventilation here. The full set of parameters with the equations are shown below:

```real FRC = 3.5 L,    // MIN LUNG VOLUME
VT  = 0.5 L,    // TIDAL VOLUME
RV  = 1.9 L,    // RESIDUAL VOLUME
TLC = 7.3 L,    // TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY
freq= 10 1/min, // BREATHING FREQUENCY (breaths/min)
numCycles = 1;  // NUMBER OF BREATHS TO RUN

real PInit cmH2O;         // MEAN PRESSURE at initial volume
real PDelta  = 5 cmH2O;   // CHANGE IN PRESSURE over cycle

when (t=t.min) { V = FRC; PInit = -V/(1/(1/Cl + 1/Ccw));  }

V:t = - ( (1/Ccw + 1/Cl) * V + P) / (Rs + Rc + Ru);
P = PInit + PDelta * sin(2*PI*freq*t+PI/2) - PDelta;```

The equations for this model may be viewed by running the JSim model applet and clicking on the Source tab at the bottom left of JSim's Run Time graphical user interface. The equations are written in JSim's Mathematical Modeling Language (MML). See the Introduction to MML and the MML Reference Manual. Additional documentation for MML can be found by using the search option at the Physiome home page.

References
``` Y.C. Fung. Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues,
Second Edition, Springer-Verlag, 1993.
```
Key terms
lung mechnanics
respiratory minute volume
elastance pulmonary compliance
airway resistance
air flow
pleural pressure
tidal volume
functional residual capacity FRC
total lung volume TLV
Respiratory System
Acknowledgements

Please cite https://www.imagwiki.nibib.nih.gov/physiome in any publication for which this software is used and send one reprint to the address given below:
The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.

Model development and archiving support at https://www.imagwiki.nibib.nih.gov/physiome provided by the following grants: NIH U01HL122199 Analyzing the Cardiac Power Grid, 09/15/2015 - 05/31/2020, NIH/NIBIB BE08407 Software Integration, JSim and SBW 6/1/09-5/31/13; NIH/NHLBI T15 HL88516-01 Modeling for Heart, Lung and Blood: From Cell to Organ, 4/1/07-3/31/11; NSF BES-0506477 Adaptive Multi-Scale Model Simulation, 8/15/05-7/31/08; NIH/NHLBI R01 HL073598 Core 3: 3D Imaging and Computer Modeling of the Respiratory Tract, 9/1/04-8/31/09; as well as prior support from NIH/NCRR P41 RR01243 Simulation Resource in Circulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, 12/1/1980-11/30/01 and NIH/NIBIB R01 EB001973 JSim: A Simulation Analysis Platform, 3/1/02-2/28/07.