ArXiv (submitted to Progress in Biomedical Engineering)
Randomized clinical trials, while often viewed as the highest evidentiary bar by which to judge the quality of a medical intervention, are far from perfect. In silico imaging trials are computational studies that seek to ascertain the performance of a medical device by collecting this information entirely via computer simulations. The benefits of in silico trials for evaluating new technology include significant resource and time savings, minimization of subject risk, the ability to study devices that are not achievable in the physical world, allow for the rapid and effective investigation of new technologies and ensure representation from all relevant subgroups. To conduct in silico trials, digital representations of humans are needed. We review the latest developments in methods and tools for obtaining digital humans for in silico imaging studies. First, we introduce terminology and a classification of digital human models. Second, we survey available methodologies for generating digital humans with healthy and diseased status and examine briefly the role of augmentation methods. Finally, we discuss the trade-offs of four approaches for sampling digital cohorts and the associated potential for study bias with selecting specific patient distributions.
In Silico Physics-Based Simulations; Artificial Intelligence; Digital Twins