Model number

Oxygen Content of Blood at 37C, Hill model.


This model shows the summation of Hb-bound and dissolved oxygen in blood. Hematocrit can be varied. The water content of plasma and RBC are average values and will differ from states of over or underhydration, or hypo- or hyper-proteinemia. Other models may be subsituted for the Hill model for HbO saturations. The conditions assumed here are pH 7.4, pCO2 40 mmHg, Temperature 37C, 2,3 DPG at 4.35 mM. For other temperatures and pHs, levels of pCO2 and 2,3-DPG one should use the Dash 2004 model. For blood-tissue exchange kinetics the Dash 2006 model is to be used as it accounts for all of these influences and their effects along the length of the capillary.


The equations for this model may be viewed by running the JSim model applet and clicking on the Source tab at the bottom left of JSim's Run Time graphical user interface. The equations are written in JSim's Mathematical Modeling Language (MML). See the Introduction to MML and the MML Reference Manual. Additional documentation for MML can be found by using the search option at the Physiome home page.

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 Adair GS. The hemoglobin system. VI. The oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin. J Biol
 Chem 63: 529-545, 1925.

 Hill AV. The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of haemoglobin on its
 dissociation curves. J Physiol 40: iv-vii, 1910

 Hill R: Oxygen dissociation curves of muscle hemoglobin. Proc Roy Soc Lond B
 120: 472-480, 1936.

 Roughton FJW, Deland EC, Kernohan JC, and Severinghaus JW: Some recent studies of the
 oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve of human blood under physiological conditions and the
 fitting of the Adair equation to the standard curve. In: Oxygen Affinity of Hemoglobin and
 Red Cell Acid Base Status. Proceedings of the Alfred Benzon Symposium IV Held at the
 Premises of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Copenhagen 17-22 May,
 1971, edited by Rorth M and Astrup P. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1972, p. 73-81.

 Winslow RM, Swenberg M-L, Berger RL, Shrager RI, Luzzana M, Samaja M,and Rossi-Bernardi L: 
 Oxygen equilibrium curve of normal human blood and its evaluation by
 Adair's equation. J Biol Chem 252: 2331-2337, 1977.
Key terms
carbon dioxide
blood gases
Hill equation

Please cite in any publication for which this software is used and send one reprint to the address given below:
The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.

Model development and archiving support at provided by the following grants: NIH U01HL122199 Analyzing the Cardiac Power Grid, 09/15/2015 - 05/31/2020, NIH/NIBIB BE08407 Software Integration, JSim and SBW 6/1/09-5/31/13; NIH/NHLBI T15 HL88516-01 Modeling for Heart, Lung and Blood: From Cell to Organ, 4/1/07-3/31/11; NSF BES-0506477 Adaptive Multi-Scale Model Simulation, 8/15/05-7/31/08; NIH/NHLBI R01 HL073598 Core 3: 3D Imaging and Computer Modeling of the Respiratory Tract, 9/1/04-8/31/09; as well as prior support from NIH/NCRR P41 RR01243 Simulation Resource in Circulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, 12/1/1980-11/30/01 and NIH/NIBIB R01 EB001973 JSim: A Simulation Analysis Platform, 3/1/02-2/28/07.