Model number

Binding kinetics of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin using Adair's four site model. Two-way binding for carbon monoxide and no interactions between binding sites.


  Model describes the binding kinetics of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin. 
  It uses a simplified model where the binding kinetics of the four sites 
  on the hemoglobin molecule are independent of each other.
  The Hill equation for hemoglobin saturation is used for comparison. The Hill 
  Equation assumes instantaneous equilibrative binding of carbon monoxide to Hb. 
  A model that takes into account cooperative binding will give a better 
  description of the data. See HbO2 cooperative model for ways to modify 
  this model described here (NSR Physiome model: HbCoop).
  These models are applied to data from Antonini and Brunori's "Hemoglobin 
  and Myoglobin In Their Reactions With Ligands", 1971, Fig 10.16, p261 
  Data sets in JSim labeled: conc.045_Antonini and conc.237_Antoni


The equations for this model may be viewed by running the JSim model applet and clicking on the Source tab at the bottom left of JSim's Run Time graphical user interface. The equations are written in JSim's Mathematical Modeling Language (MML). See the Introduction to MML and the MML Reference Manual. Additional documentation for MML can be found by using the search option at the Physiome home page.

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Help running a JSim model.

  Antonini E, Brunori M: "Kinetics of the reactions of hemoglobin and myoglobin with ligands"
  Chapter 8, p189-217 in: Hemoglobin and Myoglobin in their Reactions with Ligands,
  Frontiers of Biology, Volume 21, North-Holland Publishing Company, 1971 
  Hill AV: The diffusion of oxygen and lactic acid through tissues. 
  Proc R Soc Lond (Biol) 104: 39-96, 1928.

  Hill AV: The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of haemoglobin on its
  dissociation curves. J Physiol 40: iv-vii, 1910

  Hill R: Oxygen dissociation curves of muscle hemoglobin. Proc Roy Soc Lond B
  120: 472-480, 1936.
Key terms
Binding kinetics
Carbon Monoxide
blood gases

Please cite in any publication for which this software is used and send one reprint to the address given below:
The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.

Model development and archiving support at provided by the following grants: NIH U01HL122199 Analyzing the Cardiac Power Grid, 09/15/2015 - 05/31/2020, NIH/NIBIB BE08407 Software Integration, JSim and SBW 6/1/09-5/31/13; NIH/NHLBI T15 HL88516-01 Modeling for Heart, Lung and Blood: From Cell to Organ, 4/1/07-3/31/11; NSF BES-0506477 Adaptive Multi-Scale Model Simulation, 8/15/05-7/31/08; NIH/NHLBI R01 HL073598 Core 3: 3D Imaging and Computer Modeling of the Respiratory Tract, 9/1/04-8/31/09; as well as prior support from NIH/NCRR P41 RR01243 Simulation Resource in Circulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, 12/1/1980-11/30/01 and NIH/NIBIB R01 EB001973 JSim: A Simulation Analysis Platform, 3/1/02-2/28/07.